The 8 most important recruitment skills

A recruiter’s job involves more than just being a people person. Recruiters need to interact with a range of personalities, identify whether candidates have the relevant skills for a position, know their employer’s company inside out, have experience with up-to-date recruiting technology, and much more. That means there are many more recruitment skills to look for when assessing a candidate for an open recruiter role.

What recruitment skills are important in 2021?

When hiring a new recruiter, it’s also important to take into account the evolution of the recruiter role. For example, the new technology used to source, communicate with, track, and hire candidates has changed significantly over the past ten years. This means that recruiters need an understanding of this technology and an understanding of how this has changed the recruitment process and how they interact with candidates. 

So, which recruitment skills are most important today? This article will explore the technical and soft skills all great recruiters should have and how to assess your candidates’ talent acquisition skills.

1. Attention to detail 

In a survey, executives said that the primary effects of low attention to detail are decreased product quality, productivity, employee morale, and decrease customer service quality. When the product of an employee’s work is your workforce, it’s easy to see why poor attention to detail can lead to lower quality of hire.

Managers surveyed agreed with executives on the top four negative impacts. But, while executives ranked a decrease in product quality as the number one negative impact of low attention to detail, managers said it was decreased productivity. Of course, no company wants to hurt productivity, especially not in a busy HR department.

So, clearly, attention to detail is a must-have recruitment skill.

Recruiters deal with a lot of information related to the people in the departments that are hiring and the candidates themselves. That’s why successful recruiters need to have an eye and an ear for detail. After all, even one missed detail can result in a bad hire, reputational damage, and wasted time and hiring resources. 

2. Sourcing 

Sourcing has become one of the most important talent acquisition skills today. On average, 45 percent of applicants are unqualified, so it’s crucial to have recruiters on your team who know how to find top talent.

Whether you need a recruiter to engage in passive candidate sourcing, strategic sourcing, or basic sourcing via an Applicant Tracking System, it’s vital to know what experience your candidates have in this area. This will include assessing their knowledge of the local recruitment market, their experience with various sourcing strategies, and their skills in developing candidate personas.

3. Experience with recruitment analytics

Thanks to the latest technology, HR is becoming more data-driven. This change has a huge impact on the roles of recruiters and talent acquisition specialists.

As a result, organizations are increasingly seeking talent acquisition managers who have experience using recruitment analytics to analyze recruitment data and use it in strategic ways that can help them hire better candidates, increase revenue, and lower costs.

4. Onboarding new hires

Better onboarding practices leads to higher levels of employee retention.

A great onboarding experience improves new hire retention by 82 percent and productivity by 70%. But a poor onboarding experience doubles the likelihood that a new hire will seek employment elsewhere.

While onboarding is not technically a recruiter’s responsibility, there are times when they should be involved in the process. For example, on a new hire’s first day, the presence of the recruiter, who they’ve gotten to know through the hiring process, can be comforting.

Even if you’re a recruitment agency looking to fill an outside recruiter role, an understanding of the onboarding process is important. There are times when an outside recruiter should be involved in the onboarding process as well.

For example, when the candidate is one of the top talents in their respective industry. In such a situation, [the new hire’s] experience is of paramount importance and if [the recruiter] can help their new employer onboard them more quickly and elegantly, [they] simply have to do it.

James Burbank, “Should Recruiters Get Involved in the Onboarding of Their Placements?”

5. Experience in using Applicant Tracking Systems

Recruiters must have skills beyond legacy recruiting practices, such as using spreadsheets and email chains to manage the recruiting process. Modern recruiting skills include using Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) to compete in a fast-paced job market. 

Recruiters need to be able to use ATS software to scan, sort, and rank candidates, post to job boards, track candidates, parse resumes, and maintain career pages. Ideally, they’ll have experience with the ATS your company uses, but if a candidate can learn one ATS, they shouldn’t have much trouble learning another.

6. Improving the candidate experience

Improving the candidate experience is another critical recruitment skill. A positive candidate experience increases the likelihood that your top candidate will accept an offer. In contrast, 69% of candidates say they will never work with an employer who provides a negative experience.

Your recruiter has a huge impact on the candidate experience. They are responsible for managing the full-cycle of communication with candidates and ensuring the end-to-end recruiting processes are fluid, easy to use, and respectful of candidates’ time.

Candidates for a recruiter role should have experience in: 

  • Maintaining career pages and job descriptions 
  • Optimizing the job application process 
  • Managing communication via the ATS
  • Updating candidates on rejections and job offers
  • Negotiating job offers

7. Time management

Forty-six percent of the stress experienced by employees in the US is due to an overwhelming workload. Since recruiting requires juggling so many different people and processes, it can certainly be overwhelming for a recruiter without excellent time management skills.

Skilled recruiters should be able to identify which tasks and candidates their time is best spent on, work well with ad hoc deadlines, and organize their tasks in a way that allows them to meet their recruiting objectives. 

8. Communication 

28% of employees say poor communication leads to missed deadlines, and miscommunication can cost your company over $400,000 a year. You can avoid bringing these problems into your HR department by hiring a recruiter with great communication skills.

Communication is one of the most essential recruitment skills because not only are recruiters the crucial link between candidates and the company, but they also have a variety of other responsibilities that require well-honed communication skills

Great recruiters are able to: 

  • Read candidates well
  • Engage their active listening skills 
  • Effectively relay information about the job role
  • Convey candidate information to relevant people
  • Encourage candidates to move forward in the hiring process
  • Relay disappointing job rejection news

And recruiters with these communication skills don’t just improve productivity. It will improve the candidate experience because candidates will feel heard and respected thanks to your recruiter’s ability to listen and keep them informed.

How to assess recruitment skills

Hiring great candidates begins with the recruiter. They’re the cornerstone of sourcing, recruiting, selecting, and facilitating the hiring process of candidates. To do this, they need various skills and experience in enacting several different methodologies and strategies. 

Although you can ask candidates about their recruiting experience during the interview process, proving their skill level in each of the relevant areas can be difficult. The most effective way to assess recruitment skills is with a pre-employment test to help you uncover candidates’ real and quantifiable skill level. 

These tests provide an unbiased way of measuring a candidate’s recruiting skills in a way that isn’t possible during an interview.

screenshot of an example question from TestGorilla’s talent acquisition test

An example question from TestGorilla’s talent acquisition test

For example, TestGorilla’s talent acquisition test evaluates whether a candidate has the necessary recruiting and talent acquisition skills they’ll need throughout the recruitment process, including sourcing and recruiting the right candidates, designing a great candidate experience for best results, and onboarding talent for long-term success. It also tests candidates’ experience with recruitment analytics. 

Find out who has the recruitment skills you need with an online skills test

Recruiting and hiring recruiters is no easy task. In fact, it’s often been said that they’re some of the hardest roles to hire for. They are used to being the person in your shoes, and have experience in all types of recruitment situations. Essentially, they know what to say during interviews. They know what it means to be a good recruiter and a good candidate on paper. 

Using a pre-employment talent acquisition assessment is the easiest way to evaluate your candidates’ true skills so that your organization can start hiring better and faster.

Blog is curated by Vikram.

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Planning to Live Your Life Your Way

Many people feel as if they’re adrift in the world. They work hard, but they don’t seem to get anywhere worthwhile.

A key reason that they feel this way is that they haven’t spent enough time thinking about what they want from life, and haven’t set themselves formal goals. After all, would you set out on a major journey with no real idea of your destination? Probably not!

How to Set a Goal

First consider what you want to achieve, and then commit to it. Set SMART (specific, measureable, attainable, relevant and time-bound) goals that motivate you and write them down to make them feel tangible. Then plan the steps you must take to realize your goal, and cross off each one as you work through them.

Goal setting is a powerful process for thinking about your ideal future, and for motivating yourself to turn your vision of this future into reality.

The process of setting goals helps you choose where you want to go in life. By knowing precisely what you want to achieve, you know where you have to concentrate your efforts. You’ll also quickly spot the distractions that can, so easily, lead you astray.

Why Set Goals?

Top-level athletes, successful businesspeople and achievers in all fields all set goals. Setting goals gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation . It focuses your acquisition of knowledge, and helps you to organize your time and your resources so that you can make the most of your life.

By setting sharp, clearly defined goals, you can measure and take pride in the achievement of those goals, and you’ll see forward progress in what might previously have seemed a long pointless grind. You will also raise your self-confidence , as you recognize your own ability and competence in achieving the goals that you’ve set.

Starting to Set Personal Goals

You set your goals on a number of levels:

  • First you create your “big picture” of what you want to do with your life (or over, say, the next 10 years), and identify the large-scale goals that you want to achieve.
  • Then, you break these down into the smaller and smaller targets that you must hit to reach your lifetime goals.
  • Finally, once you have your plan, you start working on it to achieve these goals.

This is why we start the process of setting goals by looking at your lifetime goals. Then, we work down to the things that you can do in, say, the next five years, then next year, next month, next week, and today, to start moving towards them.

Step 1: Setting Lifetime Goals

The first step in setting personal goals is to consider what you want to achieve in your lifetime (or at least, by a significant and distant age in the future). Setting lifetime goals gives you the overall perspective that shapes all other aspects of your decision making.

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To give a broad, balanced coverage of all important areas in your life, try to set goals in some of the following categories (or in other categories of your own, where these are important to you):

  • Career – What level do you want to reach in your career, or what do you want to achieve?
  • Financial – How much do you want to earn, by what stage? How is this related to your career goals?
  • Education – Is there any knowledge you want to acquire in particular? What information and skills will you need to have in order to achieve other goals?
  • Family – Do you want to be a parent? If so, how are you going to be a good parent? How do you want to be seen by a partner or by members of your extended family?
  • Artistic – Do you want to achieve any artistic goals?
  • Attitude – Is any part of your mindset holding you back? Is there any part of the way that you behave that upsets you? (If so, set a goal to improve your behavior or find a solution to the problem.)
  • Physical – Are there any athletic goals that you want to achieve, or do you want good health deep into old age? What steps are you going to take to achieve this?
  • Pleasure – How do you want to enjoy yourself? (You should ensure that some of your life is for you!)
  • Public Service – Do you want to make the world a better place? If so, how?

Spend some time brainstorming  these things, and then select one or more goals in each category that best reflect what you want to do. Then consider trimming again so that you have a small number of really significant goals that you can focus on.

As you do this, make sure that the goals that you have set are ones that you genuinely want to achieve, not ones that your parents, family, or employers might want. (If you have a partner, you probably want to consider what he or she wants – however, make sure that you also remain true to yourself!)


You may also want to read our article on Personal Mission Statements . Crafting a personal mission statement can help bring your most important goals into sharp focus.

Step 2: Setting Smaller Goals

Once you have set your lifetime goals, set a five-year plan of smaller goals that you need to complete if you are to reach your lifetime plan.

Then create a one-year plan, six-month plan, and a one-month plan of progressively smaller goals that you should reach to achieve your lifetime goals. Each of these should be based on the previous plan.

Then create a daily To-Do List  of things that you should do today to work towards your lifetime goals.

At an early stage, your smaller goals might be to read books and gather information on the achievement of your higher level goals. This will help you to improve the quality and realism of your goal setting.

Finally, review your plans, and make sure that they fit the way in which you want to live your life.


If you feel that you’re not paying enough attention to certain areas of your life, you’ll find our articles on The Wheel of Life  and the Life/Career Rainbow  useful.

Staying on Course

Once you’ve decided on your first set of goals, keep the process going by reviewing and updating your To-Do List on a daily basis.

Periodically review the longer term plans, and modify them to reflect your changing priorities and experience. (A good way of doing this is to schedule regular, repeating reviews using a computer-based diary.)


A useful way of making goals more powerful is to use the SMART  mnemonic. While there are plenty of variants (some of which we’ve included in parenthesis), SMART usually stands for:

  • S – Specific (or Significant).
  • M – Measurable (or Meaningful).
  • A – Attainable (or Action-Oriented).
  • R – Relevant (or Rewarding).
  • T – Time-bound (or Trackable).

For example, instead of having “to sail around the world” as a goal, it’s more powerful to use the SMART goal “To have completed my trip around the world by December 31, 2027.” Obviously, this will only be attainable if a lot of preparation has been completed beforehand!

Further Tips for Setting Your Goals

The following broad guidelines will help you to set effective, achievable goals:

  • State each goal as a positive statement – Express your goals positively – “Execute this technique well” is a much better goal than “Don’t make this stupid mistake.”
  • Be precise – Set precise goals, putting in dates, times and amounts so that you can measure achievement. If you do this, you’ll know exactly when you have achieved the goal, and can take complete satisfaction from having achieved it.
  • Set priorities – When you have several goals, give each a priority. This helps you to avoid feeling overwhelmed by having too many goals, and helps to direct your attention to the most important ones.
  • Write goals down – This crystallizes them and gives them more force.
  • Keep operational goals small – Keep the low-level goals that you’re working towards small and achievable. If a goal is too large, then it can seem that you are not making progress towards it. Keeping goals small and incremental gives more opportunities for reward.
  • Set performance goals, not outcome goals – You should take care to set goals over which you have as much control as possible. It can be quite dispiriting to fail to achieve a personal goal for reasons beyond your control!In business, these reasons could be bad business environments or unexpected effects of government policy. In sport, they could include poor judging, bad weather, injury, or just plain bad luck.If you base your goals on personal performance, then you can keep control over the achievement of your goals, and draw satisfaction from them.
  • Set realistic goals – It’s important to set goals that you can achieve. All sorts of people (for example, employers, parents, media, or society) can set unrealistic goals for you. They will often do this in ignorance of your own desires and ambitions.It’s also possible to set goals that are too difficult because you might not appreciate either the obstacles in the way, or understand quite how much skill you need to develop to achieve a particular level of performance.

Achieving Goals

When you’ve achieved a goal, take the time to enjoy the satisfaction of having done so. Absorb the implications of the goal achievement, and observe the progress that you’ve made towards other goals.

If the goal was a significant one, reward yourself appropriately. All of this helps you build the self-confidence you deserve.

With the experience of having achieved this goal, review the rest of your goal plans:

  • If you achieved the goal too easily, make your next goal harder.
  • If the goal took a dispiriting length of time to achieve, make the next goal a little easier.
  • If you learned something that would lead you to change other goals, do so.
  • If you noticed a deficit in your skills despite achieving the goal, decide whether to set goals to fix this.

Tip 1:

Our article, Golden Rules of Goal Setting , will show you how to set yourself up for success when it comes to your goals. If you’re still having trouble, you might also want to try Backward Goal Setting .

Tip 2:

It’s important to remember that failing to meet goals does not matter much, just as long as you learn from the experience.

Feed lessons you have learned back into the process of setting your next goals. Remember too that your goals will change as time goes on. Adjust them regularly to reflect growth in your knowledge and experience, and if goals do not hold any attraction any longer, consider letting them go.

Example Personal Goals

For her New Year’s Resolution, Susan has decided to think about what she really wants to do with her life.

Her lifetime goals are as follows:

  • Career – “To be managing editor of the magazine that I work for.”
  • Artistic – “To keep working on my illustration skills. Ultimately I want to have my own show in our downtown gallery.”
  • Physical – “To run a marathon.”

Now that Susan has listed her lifetime goals, she then breaks down each one into smaller, more manageable goals.

Let’s take a closer look at how she might break down her lifetime career goal – becoming managing editor of her magazine:

  • Five-year goal: “Become deputy editor.”
  • One-year goal: “Volunteer for projects that the current Managing Editor is heading up.”
  • Six-month goal: “Go back to school and finish my journalism degree.”
  • One-month goal: “Talk to the current managing editor to determine what skills are needed to do the job.”
  • One-week goal: “Book the meeting with the Managing Editor.”

As you can see from this example, breaking big goals down into smaller, more manageable goals makes it far easier to see how the goal will get accomplished.

Key Points

Goal setting is an important method for:

  • Deciding what you want to achieve in your life.
  • Separating what’s important from what’s irrelevant, or a distraction.
  • Motivating yourself.
  • Building your self-confidence, based on successful achievement of goals.

Set your lifetime goals first. Then, set a five-year plan of smaller goals that you need to complete if you are to reach your lifetime plan. Keep the process going by regularly reviewing and updating your goals. And remember to take time to enjoy the satisfaction of achieving your goals when you do so.

If you don’t already set goals, do so, starting now. As you make this technique part of your life, you’ll find your career accelerating, and you’ll wonder how you did without it!

Blog is curated by Vikram Kakri.

7 Important Teamwork Skills You Need in School and Your Career

Teamwork is one of the most sought-after skills in the workplace, according to a survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Advancements in technology have allowed companies to be more connected and collaborative than ever before, with a diverse workforce dispersed around the world.

As a result, it’s even more important for employees to demonstrate strong teamwork skills, in both face-to-face and virtual team interactions.

College is the perfect time to start practicing your teamwork skills. Group work is an integral part of your academic coursework, and your internship, externship and clinical experiences are also a great opportunity to develop your relationship building, project management and leadership abilities.

Here are seven teamwork skills that are essential for your academic and professional success:

1. Communication

Communication is the foundation of effective teamwork. Whether you’re working on a presentation with your classmates or spearheading a new project at work, it’s important to talk openly and honestly with your group members about expectations, deadlines, and responsibilities. Establishing open lines of communication promotes trust and makes for a positive team environment. While disagreements might occur, being upfront and respectful in your communication with other team members will help you resolve issues quickly.

2. Time management

Time management, accountability and responsibility are all equally important for your career as they are in your academic life. Project managers, for example, must have strong organizational skills in order to set manageable goals for their team and keep others on track to meet their deadlines. Nurses must also demonstrate strong time management skills, prioritizing and delegating tasks so that they can spend more time on the patients who need extra care.

Learning how to balance multiple deadlines and assignments while you are in school will make it easier for you to adjust to a fast-paced and collaborative work environment in the future.

3. Problem-solving

Effective problem solvers are able to think outside the box when challenges or issues arise. Rather than focusing on negative outcomes, they stay calm and help their team work towards a solution. This approach helps uncover roadblocks or inefficiencies that are inhibiting the team’s success, so you can work to improve those processes in the future.

4. Listening

When working in a group, it’s important to keep an open mind. Recognize that your team members may see things from another perspective, and hear them out. Listening to other points of view can help you see multiple sides of an issue, including ones that you have never considered before. This allows you to be a better colleague and leader, to anticipate needs and challenges before they arise and to respond effectively when they do.

5. Critical thinking

Critical thinking allows you to make better, more informed decisions. It can be tempting to follow along with whatever the group decides, or what one team member believes is the best course of action, but sometimes a different approach or a new idea can help achieve better results. By thinking critically about the situation – examining all sides of an issue, reflecting on past experiences, and listening to what other group members have to say – you could arrive at a breakthrough that moves your team forward in new and exciting ways.

6. Collaboration

Working in a team can be challenging at times, but more often it is a great opportunity to uncover creative ideas, share different perspectives and experiences, as well as enhance your own skills. If you treat each group project as a learning experience, you can help foster a more productive team environment. Your desire to learn and your willingness to explore new approaches will make you a better contributor, manager, or leader.

7. Leadership

A leader who works well with others – both within his or her own department and across departments – can help spread knowledge and resources, develop new leaders and contribute to an organization’s success. Leaders can demonstrate strong teamwork skills by promoting collaboration, acting as a mentor or coach for their employees and by empowering others to learn, grow and advance.

At Herzing, we help you sharpen or develop the skills you need for career advancement through group work, hands-on learning experiences, presentations and capstone projects. Additionally, our P.R.I.C.E. of Success philosophy is focused on the core values of professionalism, respect, integrity, caring and engagement, which are the foundation for a successful, meaningful career.

Learn more about our degree programs and start your path to career advancement today!

12 Reasons Why Team Building Works

Team building brings people together by encouraging collaboration and teamwork.

Team building in the workplace is the process of creating a team that is cohesively working together towards a common goal. The importance and main purpose of team building is to create a strong team through forming bonds and connections. Creating these bonds through team building is very beneficial to businesses and organizations. The benefits of team building include increased communication, planning skills, employee motivation, and employee collaboration.

Fun activities that help people see each other in a different light allow them to connect in a different setting. People on your team are asked to think about the implications of these activities at their workplace.

One of the most powerful reasons for team building is to get results. Through a series of planned team building events that are fun and motivational, teams build skills like communication, planning, problem-solving, and conflict resolution. These team building activity ideas help to facilitate long-term team building through fostering genuine connections, deeper discussions, and processing.

A close-knit team will ensure productivity and a good work environment. Here are 12 reasons to start team building: motivate your team members and bring them closer together, even in the virtual workplace!

  1. Networking, socializing, and getting to know each other better
  2. Teamwork and boosting team performance
  3. Competition and bragging rights
  4. Celebration, team spirit, fun, and motivation
  5. Collaboration and the fostering of innovation and creativity
  6. Communication and working better together
  7. Enhance company culture
  8. Create something to look forward to
  9. Show employees appreciation
  10. Build bridges across departments
  11. Unlock leadership potential
  12. Improve employee engagement and morale

Learn more about the 12 reasons to start planning team building activities at your company below.


1. Networking, socializing, and getting to know each other better.

charity team building program: do good bus

Socializing and making friends in the workplace is one of the best ways to increase productivity in the virtual, hybrid, or in-person workplace. Not only does it increase morale in the office: it will help your team adapt to a virtual work environment more efficiently, solving issues that come up with the “new normal.” Holding a team building activity can be short and sweet, or it can be a more complex event that everyone has more time to plan for! Either way, TeamBonding has all the resources you’ll need to make it fun. Try one of our virtual team building events to bring your team members closer together and show your appreciation.

2. Teamwork and boosting team performance.

chain reaction

Team building activities also work to improve workplace projects that involve teamwork because it helps the teams understand each other better. After completing team building activities together, employees better understand each other’s strengths, weaknesses, and interests. This understanding helps them work even better together on future progress vital to a company.

When everyone is contributing their best, it sets the tone for a positive work culture.  Each team is different and every individual has something unique to contribute. Once you can identify and encourage everyone to reach their individual potential, your team will be able to reach its collective potential as well.

3. Competition and bragging rights.

Competition has been shown to increase productivity. By channeling that increased productivity into a fun, inclusive team building activity, teams can bond in a more effective way than by other methods. Learning to work well together can take some time, but you’d be surprised at how fast teams can come together when there is an incentive to win on the table.

4. Celebration, team spirit, fun, and motivation.

Arts & Music Toys for Tykes

After any sports team wins a major championship, they celebrate and have fun, which motivates them to want to win even more. This extreme example shows that the celebration, cheering, and fun that comes with every TeamBonding event can motivate employees to bring their job to the next level!

5. Collaboration and the fostering of innovation and creativity.

People tend to have a larger imagination when they are around people they are comfortable with. Successful team building events not only bring people closer together, but they also contribute to a more successful and creative workplace. Everyday workplace collaboration is key to a successful business. For example, a coach always has assistants to help out when needed.

6. Communication and working better together.

To no surprise, communication and working better together is the top reason why people choose team building. Everybody wants a friendly work environment, where people are comfortable and happy to talk to and work with anyone.

One of the best outcomes for team building is that the activities actually work to improve communication.

Many hold these activities with the specific goal of working on communication and trust. While this is a general goal for every office,  you may find certain areas of communication that could be focused on. Learn more about the crucial factors of team building success here.

7. Enhance company culture

Company culture can be explained as the values, norms, goals, and attitudes that exist within your organization. Simply put, it defines the environment you work in and makes up the personality of the company. According to Indeed, job seekers highly value a company’s culture, and 46% of those who considered a job, but did not apply to it, said they ultimately chose not to because they didn’t feel it would be a good culture fit.

Regularly scheduled team building events can improve your company culture and provide a space to understand your employees’ wants and needs. Sometimes the culture of management doesn’t match up with that of the employees, so finding a middle ground is an important step in creating a more positive environment. Team building activities help to cut out toxicity and get everyone on the same page while working together. The benefits will be sure to follow you back to the office.

8. Create something to look forward to

Whether it is once a week or every few months, scheduling team building activities will give your employees something to look forward to other than those project deadlines. No one wants to look at their calendar to see what seems like a never-ending list of tasks. Have your employees get excited about non-work-related events during the workweek, not just on the weekend.

It is also important to recognize that these events give employees a shared goal that doesn’t have to do with their work. This much-needed break is good for employee mental health and ties back into the idea of creating a more positive work environment for the people who make your company successful.

9. Show employees appreciation

Along the same lines, team building events let employees feel appreciated for their hard work. Many times, great work can accidentally be swept under the rug due to a sea of other things going on. Prioritizing these events shows employees you care about them and appreciate their efforts by rewarding them with a fun activity the team can enjoy together.

10. Build bridges across departments

The connections between employees within one department aren’t the only ones that matter when it comes to building a stronger team. “Team” doesn’t have to be confined to the sales team or the marketing team. It is a unified collection of all the working teams that make up your organization. Ask yourself – how well do you know employees in departments other than your own? If the answer is not well or not at all, then team building will surely bring departments closer together to encourage cross-functional collaboration that will benefit your organization as a whole.

Urge employees to familiarize themselves with people in other departments, instead of working in a silo with members of their immediate team. You will likely find that this practice will help everyone to feel more comfortable in the workplace and open doors to new relationships. Bridging those divides allows for positive relationships to form, which leads to a more productive company.

11. Unlock leadership potential


In a more relaxed and creative environment, you may find employees have hidden skills that haven’t been discovered in the office. Leaders can arise in the simplest of activities and may surprise you. Regularly scheduled team building events can feed employees’ confidence in the workplace. You may discover that the quiet new employee is incredible at inspiring their peers and with the right mentor, development opportunities, and encouragement could be your company’s next rising leader.

Consider creating a mentor program or leadership development program to help employees achieve their highest potential. After each team building event, reach out to team leaders and request nominations for these programs based on colleagues that have stood out during these experiences.

12. Improved employee engagement and morale

Committing to regularly scheduled team building events can build comradery, make employees more excited to come into work, more enthusiastic about their work, and more comfortable approaching each other.  It also may help employees to feel more encouraged to step away from their desks and have some fun, which in turn will help them return to their work feeling refreshed and reenergized.

Team building activities give employees something common to talk about other than work. They can break down communication barriers and help teams work more efficiently. Most importantly, employees are able to take the skills that they learn from these events and apply them to their everyday tasks, such as creativity, thinking strategically, adapting quickly, and working collaboratively with their peers.

Testimonials all over the TeamBonding website will attest to the importance of team building.

A successful team building activity will surely mean a more comfortable, successful workplace environment for any company, large or small. Are you ready to improve your team’s communications, skills, collaboration, performance, among other abilities? 

We’ve got you covered! We offer a few different program and activity categories designed to fit the structure of your company.

If you’re still adapting to the new normal and looking to keep your virtual team engaged, view our Virtual & Remote Online Team Building Activities.

If you have a hybrid company culture and are looking to reconcile your remote teams with your in-person teams, view our Hybrid Team Building Activities.

If you’re starting to return to your office space and resuming in-person activities, view our In-Person Team Building Activities.

M&R Ch. 3: Truthfulness and relevance

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This is my colleague Chris Cocchiarella’s summary of the third chapter of Wilson and Sperber’s (2012) Meaning and Relevance. We previously posted Chris’s summary of the book’s preface, an intro to some of the terms and concepts of Relevance Theory, and a his summary of the introductory Chapter 1. All the other chapters  before the present one have also received summaries. (Click on the “Relevance Theory” tag link on any of these, and you’ll get the whole list.) I also posted a claim that Relevance Theory matters to rhetoric and TC.

Having explained the meaning of inferential pragmatics in Chapter 1 and word-concept relationships in Chapter 2, Sperber and Wilson move to the topic of truth in Chapter 3.  Any discussion of truth can start with the truism that hearers generally expect speakers to say things that are true.  Does this mean, as some philosophers of language believed (e.g., David Lewis and Paul Grice), that language use is governed by specific rules or conventions of ‘truthfulness,’ which enforce trust among speakers and hearers?  For example, Lewis thought that a ‘convention of truthfulness’ makes hearers and speakers trust one another with respect to what they say, especially what they literally say (if this so-called ‘convention of truthfulness’ sounds vague, S&W will explain why, as we shall soon see).  

Basically, S&W disagree with Lewis in at least two ways.  First, language use is not necessarily governed by some rule or convention of ‘truthfulness’ (but by expectations of relevance, of which truth is a by-product).  Second, truth is created not only by what can be literally said (but also by what can be loosely and figuratively said, depending on expectations of relevance).

First, S&W argue, “language use is not governed by any convention or maxim of truthfulness in what is said” (47).  Instead, they insist that language use is governed by expectations of relevance, and relevance is what makes truth possible, not vice versa: “expectations of truthfulness—to the extent that they exist—are a by-product of expectations of relevance” (48).  What do S&W mean when the say truth is a by-product of relevance?  Simply put, a linguistic utterance is recognized as true when it is already inferred as meaningful or relevant: “an utterance is relevant when the hearer, given his cognitive dispositions and the context, is likely to derive some genuine knowledge from it” (60).  This inferential nature of communication explained by Relevance Theory (RT)[1] is what allows hearers to interpret true conclusions about what speakers say:

This relevance-theoretic account not only describes a psychological process but also explains what makes this process genuinely inferential: that is, likely to yield true conclusions (in this case, intended interpretations) from true premises (in this case, from the fact that the speaker has produced a given utterance, together with contextual information) (66).

Second, as RT also has shown, language can communicate truth not just literally but also figuratively or loosely, depending on how expectations of relevance interact with words and context to produce interpretations.  While literal interpretations are the least dependent on context, “figurative interpretations are radically context-dependent” (51); loose interpretations are in between, since they involve “an expression applied to items that fall outside its linguistically determined denotation,” such as rough approximations (e.g., “Holland is flat”) (54).  In sum, true linguistic expressions are not only created by literal interpretations but also by loose and figurative interpretations.

The fact that truth can be spoken not only through literal but also through loose and figurative expressions (a fact well known by artists and poets) explains why the so-called ‘convention of truthfulness’ is just not true.  According to S&W, “Without such an appeal to literal meaning in the determination of what is said, the claim that there is a maxim or convention of truthfulness in what is said would be, if not vacuous, at least utterly vague” (50).  So there are not necessarily rules of ‘truthfulness’ that govern cognition or language use.  However, there is an inferential process in cognition and language use that ‘maximizes’[2] relevance, and this process creates meaning through a continuum of literal, loose, and figurative language—or degrees of stronger or weaker explicatures and implicatures (see Preface and Chapter 1 summaries).  Truth, in sum, emerges from relevance (or, as S&W say, truth is a ‘by-product’ of relevance).

S&W’s explanation of truth as a by-product of relevance explains why, beyond literal truth, there is loose and figurative truth communicated in quotidian and poetic language.  To repeat the earlier premises of RT, stronger and weaker degrees of explicatures and implicatures create a continuum of literal, loose, and figurative interpretations that satisfy expectations of relevance:

Literal, loose, hyperbolic or metaphorical [i.e., figurative] interpretations are arrived at by exactly the same process [the relevance-guided comprehension heuristic or procedure], and there is a continuum of cases which cross-cut these categories (74-75).

Beyond literally true language, when a speaker communicates via loose or figurative language, more processing effort is required by the hearer to create broader cognitive effects (i.e., wider ranges of meaning), resulting in figuratively true language.

The more metaphorical the interpretation, the greater the responsibility the hearer has to take for the construction of implicatures (i.e. implicit premises and conclusions), and the weaker most of these implicatures will be.  Typically, poetic metaphors have a wide range of potential implicatures, and the audience is encouraged to be creative in exploring this range (a fact well recognised in literary theory since the Romantics) (76).

S&W thus differ from earlier theorists (particularly Lewis and Grice) about the relation between truth and relevance in at least two ways.  First, language use is governed by expectations of relevance, of which truth is a by-product.  Second, since relevance creates a continuum of literal, loose, and figurative language, truth can be literal, loose, or figurative.[3]  S&W conclude:

So, yes, hearers expect to be provided with true information.  But there is an infinite supply of true information which is not worth attending to.  Actual expectations are of relevant information, which (because it is information) is also true.  However, we have argued that there is just no expectation that the true information communicated by an utterance should be literally or conventionally expressed, as opposed to being explicated or implicated (83).

Having explained how truth can go beyond literalism, S&W put RT in a position to directly address rhetoric and figurative language such as metaphor and irony.  The implications of RT for rhetoric, metaphor, and irony are detailed in chapters 4, 5, and 6, respectively.


Wilson, Deirdre and Sperber, Dan.  (2012).  Meaning and Relevance.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[1] Again, according to RT, the mutual adjustment of stronger or weaker explicatures and implicatures creates positive cognitive effects through minimal processing effort, which satisfies expectations of relevance that result in acceptable and accessible interpretations.  This process is called the “relevance-guided comprehension heuristic” (7) or the “relevance-theoretic comprehension procedure” (74).  See Preface and Chapter 1 summaries.

[2] As I parenthetically opined in my summary of chapter 1, instead of saying that we ‘maximize’ relevance, I believe S&W should rather say that we ‘satisfice’ relevance, since “optimal relevance” is just an interpretation that is “relevant enough to be worth processing” (64).

[3] For readers familiar with the theories of Grice and Lewis, S&W also discuss in chapter 3 how their notions of ‘literal meaning’ or ‘what is said’ (in contrast to implicature) are better rethought as S&W’s notion of ‘explicature’:

In our account [Relevance Theory], we give theoretical status to the notions of explicature and implicature (roughly, the explicit and implicit contents of utterances, but not to the notions of literal meaning or what is said.  Indeed, we introduced the ‘explicature’, on the model of Grice’s ‘implicature’, because we doubt that there is any common-sense notion of what is said capable of playing a useful role in the study of verbal comprehension (77).

CategoriesRelevance theorySpeech Act TheoryTagsCognitive-pragmatic rhetoricDan SperberDeirdre WilsonGricePragmaticsRelevance TheorySpeech act theory

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What Is Happiness?

Happiness is an emotional state characterized by feelings of joy, satisfaction, contentment, and fulfillment. While happiness has many different definitions, it is often described as involving positive emotions and life satisfaction.

When most people talk about happiness, they might be talking about how they feel in the present moment, or they might be referring to a more general sense of how they feel about life overall.

Because happiness tends to be such a broadly defined term, psychologists and other social scientists typically use the term ‘subjective well-being’ when they talk about this emotional state. Just as it sounds, subjective well-being tends to focus on an individual’s overall personal feelings about their life in the present.  

Two key components of happiness (or subjective well-being) are:

  • The balance of emotions: Everyone experiences both positive and negative emotions, feelings, and moods. Happiness is generally linked to experiencing more positive feelings than negative.
  • Life satisfaction: This relates to how satisfied you feel with different areas of your life including your relationships, work, achievements, and other things that you consider important.

How to Know If You’re Happy

While perceptions of happiness may be different from one person to the next, there are some key signs that psychologists look for when measuring and assessing happiness.

Some key signs of happiness include:

  • Feeling like you are living the life you wanted
  • Feeling that the conditions of your life are good
  • Feeing that you have accomplished (or will accomplish) what you want in life
  • Feeling satisfied with your life
  • Feeling positive more than negative

One important thing to remember is that happiness isn’t a state of constant euphoria. Instead, happiness is an overall sense of experiencing more positive emotions than negative ones.

Happy people still feel the whole range of human emotions—anger, frustrastion, boredom, loneliness, and even sadness—from time to time. But even when faced with discomfort, they have an underlying sense of optimism that things will get better, that they can deal with what is happening, and that they will be able to feel happy again.The Benefits of Optimism

Types of Happiness

There are many different ways of thinking about happiness. For example, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle made a distinction between two different kinds of happiness: hedonia and eudaimonia.

  • Hedonia: Hedonic happiness is derived from pleasure. It is most often associated with doing what feels good, self-care, fulfilling desires, experiencing enjoyment, and feeling a sense of satisfaction.
  • Eudaimonia: This type of happiness is derived from seeking virtue and meaning. Important components of eudaimonic well-being including feeling that your life has meaning, value, and purpose. It is associated more with fulfilling responsibilities, investing in long-term goals, concern for the welfare of other people, and living up to personal ideals.

Hedonia and eudemonia are more commonly known today in psychology as pleasure and meaning, respectively. More recently, psychologists have suggested the addition of the third component that relates to engagement. These are feelings of commitment and participation in different areas of life.

Research suggests that happy people tend to rank pretty high on eudaimonic life satisfaction and better than average on their hedonic life satisfaction.1 

All of these can play an important role in the overall experience of happiness, although the relative value of each can be highly subjective. Some activities may be both pleasurable and meaningful, while others might skew more one way or the other.

For example, volunteering for a cause you believe in might be more meaningful than pleasurable. Watching your favorite tv show, on the other hand, might rank lower in meaning and higher on pleasure.2

Some types of happiness that may fall under these three main categories include:

  • Joy: A often relatively brief feeling that is felt in the present moment
  • Excitement: A happy feeling that involves looking forward to something with positive anticipation
  • Gratitude: A positive emotion that involves being thankful and appreciative
  • Pride: A feeling of satisfaction in something that you have accomplished
  • Optimism: This is a way of looking at life with a positive, upbeat outlook
  • Contentment: This type of happiness involves a sense of satisfaction

What Are the Types of Happiness?

How to Cultivate Happiness

While some people just tend to be naturally happier, there are things that you can do to cultivate your sense of happiness. 

Pursue Intrinsic Goals 

Achieving goals that you are intrinsically motivated to pursue, particularly ones that are focused on personal growth and community, can help boost happiness. Research suggests that pursuing these types of intrinsically-motivated goals can increase happiness more than pursuing extrinsic goals like gaining money or status.3

Enjoy the Moment

Studies have found that people tend to over earn—they become so focused on accumulating things that they lose track of actually enjoying what they are doing.4

So, rather than falling into the trap of mindlessly accumulating to the detriment of your own happiness, focus on practicing gratitude for the things you have and enjoying the process as you go. 

Reframe Negative Thoughts

When you find yourself stuck in a pessimistic outlook or experiencing negativity, look for ways that you can reframe your thoughts in a more positive way. 

People have a natural negativity bias, or a tendency to pay more attention to bad things than to good things. This can have an impact on everything from how you make decisions to how you form impressions of other people. Discounting the positive—a cognitive distortion where people focus on the negative and ignore the positive—can also contribute to negative thoughts.

Reframing these negative perceptions isn’t about ignoring the bad. Instead, it means trying to take a more balanced, realistic look at events. It allows you to notice patterns in your thinking and then challenge negative thoughts.What Is Cognitive Reframing?

Impact of Happiness

Happiness has been shown to predict positive outcomes in many different areas of life.

  • Positive emotions increase satisfaction with life.
  • Happiness helps people build stronger coping skills and emotional resources.
  • Positive emotions are linked to better health and longevity. One study found that people who experienced more positive emotions than negative ones were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period.5
  • Positive feelings increase resilience. Resilience helps people better manage stress and bounce back better when faced with setbacks. For example, one study found that happier people tend to have lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol and that these benefits tend to persist over time.6
  • People who report having a positive state of well-being are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as eating fruits and vegetables and engaging in regular physical exercise.7
  • Being happy may make help you get sick less often. Happier mental states are linked to increased immunity.8

Improving Your Happiness

Some people seem to have a naturally higher baseline for happiness—one large-scale study of more than 2,000 twins suggested that around 50% of overall life satisfaction was due to genetics, 10% to external events, and 40% to individual activities.9

So while you might not be able to control what your “base level” of happiness is, there are things that you can do to make your life happier and more fulfilling. Even the happiest of individuals can feel down from time to time and happiness is something that all people need to consciously pursue.

Get Regular Exercise

Exercise is good for both your body and mind. Physical activity is linked to a range of physical and psychological benefits including improved mood. Numerous studies have shown that regular exercise may play a role in warding off symptoms of depression, but evidence also suggests that it may also help make people happier, too.

In one analysis of past research on the connection between physical activity and happiness, researchers found a consistent positive link.10

Even a little bit of exercise produces a happiness boost—people who were physically active for as little as 10 minutes a day or who worked out only once a week had higher levels of happiness than people who never exercised.

Show Gratitude

In one study, participants were asked to engage in a writing exercise for 10 to 20 minutes each night before bed.11 Some were instructed to write about daily hassles, some about neutral events, and some about things they were grateful for. The results found that people who had written about gratitude had increase positive emotions, increased subjective happiness, and improve life satisfaction.

As the authors of the study suggest, keeping a gratitude list is a relatively easy, affordable, simple, and pleasant way to boost your mood. Try setting aside a few minutes each night to write down or think about things in your life that you are grateful for.Why You Should Write Down the Things You’re Grateful for Each Day

Find a Sense of Purpose

Research has found that people who feel like they have a purpose have better well-being and feel more fulfilled.12 A sense of purpose involves seeing your life as having goals, direction, and meaning. It may help improve happiness by promoting healthier behaviors. 

Some things you can do to help find a sense of purpose include:

  • Explore your interests and passions
  • Engage in prosocial and altruistic causes
  • Work to address injustices
  • Look for new things you might want to learn more about

This sense of purpose is influenced by a variety of factors, but it is also something that you can cultivate. It involves finding a goal that you care deeply about that will lead you to engage in productive, positive actions in order to work toward that goal.How to Find Your Purpose In Life

Press Play for Advice On Reaching Your Dreams

Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast, featuring best-selling author Dave Hollis, shares how to create your best life. Click below to listen now.

Follow NowApple Podcasts / Spotify / Google Podcasts / RSS

Challenges of Finding Happiness

While seeking happiness is important, there are times when the pursuit of life satisfaction falls short. Some challenges to watch for include:

Valuing the Wrong Things

Money may not be able to buy happiness, but there is research that spending money on things like experiences can make you happier than spending it on material possessions. 

One study, for example, found that spending money on things that buy time—such as spending money on time-saving services—can increase happiness and life satisfaction.13

Rather than overvaluing things such as money, status, or material possessions, pursuing goals that result in more free time or enjoyable experiences may have a higher happiness reward.

Not Seeking Social Support

Social support means having friends and loved ones that you can turn to for support. Research has found that perceived social support plays an important role in subjective well-being. For example, one study found that perceptions of social support were responsible for 43% of a person’s level of happiness.14

It is important to remember that when it comes to social support, quality is more important than quantity. Having just a few very close and trusted friends will have a greater impact on your overall happiness than having many casual acquaintances.

Thinking of Happiness as an Endpoint

Happiness isn’t a goal that you can simply reach and be done with. It is a constant pursuit that requires continual nurturing and sustenance.

One study found that people who tend to value happiness most also tended to feel the least satisfied with their lives.15 Essentially, happiness becomes such a lofty goal that it becomes virtually unattainable. 

“Valuing happiness could be self-defeating because the more people value happiness, the more likely they will feel disappointed,” suggest the authors of the study.

Perhaps the lesson is to not make something as broadly defined as “happiness” your goal. Instead, focus on building and cultivating the sort of life and relationships that bring fulfillment and satisfaction to your life. 

It is also important to consider how you personally define happiness. Happiness is a broad term that means different things to different people. Rather than looking at happiness as an endpoint, it can be more helpful to think about what happiness really means to you and then work on small things that will help you become happier. This can make achieving these goals more manageable and less overwhelming.How to Make Your Health Goals S.M.A.R.T.

History of Happiness

Happiness has long been recognized as a critical part of health and well-being. The “pursuit of happiness” is even given as an inalienable right in the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Our understanding of what will bring happiness, however, has shifted over time.

Psychologists have also proposed a number of different theories to explain how people experience and pursue happiness. These theories include:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

The hierarchy of needs suggests that people are motivated to pursue increasingly complex needs. Once more basic needs are fulfilled, people are then motivated by more psychological and emotional needs.

At the peak of the hierarchy is the need for self-actualization, or the need to achieve one’s full potential. The theory also stresses the importance of peak experiences or transcendent moments in which a person feels deep understanding, happiness, and joy. 

Positive Psychology

The pursuit of happiness is central to the field of positive psychology. Psychologists who study positive psychology are interested in learning ways to increase positivity and helping people live happier, more satisfying lives. 

Rather than focusing on mental pathologies, the field instead strives to find ways to help people, communities, and societies improve positive emotions and achieve greater happiness.

Decision-Making Skills: Definition and Examples

This article has been approved by an Indeed Career Coach

Decision-making skills can be the difference in making a choice that improves your organization. The aptitude to make decisions is a leadership trait, which portrays your ability to think objectively and relates concepts to the goals you’re trying to reach. Your capacity to make a quick decision can help establish a strong bond with all employees that strengthens your company’s culture.

In this article, we will talk about what decision-making skills are, examples of decision-making skills, how to improve decision-making skills and how to highlight them when applying for a job.

Read more: Setting Goals to Improve Your Career

What are decision-making skills?

Decision-making skills show your proficiency in choosing between two or more alternatives. You can make decisions once you process all the information available to you and speak with the right points of contact involved in a certain situation. Overall, it’s important to identify processes that help you make the right decision on behalf of the organization and make a concerted effort to uncover biases that may affect the outcome of it.

Read more: What is Strategic Planning? Definition, Techniques and Examples

Examples of decision-making skills

You must incorporate a wide variety of skills to make the right decisions. Check out these decision-making skills below that you can add to your resume to stand out to your future employer:

  • Problem-solving
  • Leadership
  • Reasoning
  • Intuition
  • Teamwork
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Creativity
  • Time management
  • Organization


Leaders can employ their problem-solving skills to make critical decisions for their company. You need to factor in different viewpoints to consider the numerous variables required to make a thoughtful decision. It’s a necessity that you separate the emotions from the conversations you have with people that’ll influence your decision-making. The essence of having adept problem-solving skills is that you can formulate decisions quickly and effectively, so you need to do your research and pay close attention to detail to match the facts with the situation you’re addressing.

Read more: Problem-Solving Skills: Definitions and Examples


Leadership is defined as the act of organizing several employees within your organization, and good leadership can establish a consensus about a particular decision. In this case, leadership involves working with people to evaluate the present and motivate them to achieve their goals once a decision is made.

Make sure that you take the time to build a strong relationship with your coworkers, so you can get to know them and have them be comfortable to speak freely around you. The more engaged and personable you are, the higher the likelihood there is to work cohesively with your team and making productive choices that have a long-term impact.

Read more: Leadership Skills: Definitions and Examples


Reasoning is one of the main skills needed to be informed about the decision you can make. Make sure that you review all the advantages and disadvantages of the decisions that you’re considering taking action on. This is the best way to reason with the present and plan for the future while staying objective and grounded during this process.

Consider all available and relevant points of data to help you guide your decision-making and take a stance about who you’re making it with. You want to keep your reasoning aligned with the people you trust and aim to stay committed to the goals you’re trying to achieve.

Related: Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning


Intuition is about deciding and trusting your instincts. Your instincts come from the experiences you’ve witnessed in the past and the core values that drive you each day. The sum of the experiences and the lessons you’ve learned from them factor into your decision-making. You need to associate your instincts with the potential actions you can take to see if your decision is logical and actionable.


You must collaborate with your coworkers at some point to make a sound decision. For example, you may have to work with your marketing manager on the best way to work with the client and improve the results of their marketing campaign last quarter.

Here, you use reasoning to break down options to help the client improve their campaign, so a status report can give you applicable data. After, you can weigh the possible key performance indicators (KPIs) that can measure its success going forward. Overall, your ability to work with a team determines the results you earn and the number of people affected by the decision your team made.

Read more: Teamwork Skills: Defintions and Examples

Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence makes you critically aware of your emotions, and you can express them in a way that encourages action. Your emotions should lay the groundwork for your inspiration regarding a specific cause or mission that motivates you. However, the way you analyze data on the subject matter is going to dictate how well-informed you are when making your final decision.

Read more: Emotional Intelligence: Definitions and Examples


Your creativity harnesses your logical and emotional thinking to generate a unique solution. You need to have trusted employees within your organization to exchange ideas to come up with short and long-term solutions. You can also use your creativity to frame the conversations you have with employees during meetings and the amount of time allocated to ensure that everyone’s voice can be heard. Consider having weekly brainstorming sessions to maximize employees’ creativity to gain noteworthy input.

Read more: Creativity Skills: Definitions and Examples

Time management

Since decisions need to be made quickly, you have to outline the amount of time you have to make your decision. You always have to work within the confines of your situation, but time management allows you to structure how you can make a decision. If you make have to decide by the end of the week, you can spend the time on each stage of the decision-making process including possible actions and purposed solutions you can take.

Read more: Time Management Skills: Definitions and Examples


Organization is vital in your making a final decision. You should use this skill to find out what results you’re looking for and if it’s a top priority. If you’re giving surveys about your product, your priority is to gain feedback from your target audience and see if you’re using the correct user personal for your marketing campaign.

Read more: What Are Organizational Skills?

How to improve decision-making skills

Check out this guide to aid you in improving your decision-making skills:

  1. Identify the situation.
  2. Note potential solutions or actions.
  3. List the advantages and disadvantages of each option.
  4. Choose the decision you want to proceed with and measure the results.

1. Identify the situation

Problems can be recognized by any member of the organization. They should be reported to a department manager or human resources depending on the seriousness of it. The executive team may also be informed if it’s tied to the long-term goals they set out. Schedule a meeting with all parties involved first before proceeding with informing the rest of the organization.

2. Note potential solutions or actions

Document all possible solutions for the problem in front of you and keep a record of them. List them in front of your team during a meeting, so they can actively participate in this process. They should also be sent an email to keep a record of it for themselves. Once you have the solutions listed, list potential action items to all team members to execute the decision agreed upon.

3. List the advantages and disadvantages of each option

Discuss the pros and cons extensively to see which options can proceed to the decision-making stage. Take your time and calculate the pros and cons wisely to see if it matches your goals and KPIs that measure its success.

4. Choose the decision you want to proceed with and measure the results

Think of the decision you make as one with a short and long-term impact. The good news is that you’ll always learn from the decisions you make, so track the performance of this decision to align the outcome with the pros and cons you listed.

Read more: 10 Best Skills to Include on a Resume

How to highlight decision-making skills

Take a look at three ways you can showcase your decision-making skills on your resume:

Use applicable verbs shown in the job description

Word association is key to properly display your skills to the hiring manager. Verbs like selected, decided and strategized and executed all exemplify a decision-maker. The caveat is that you need to expand on substance within the description to earn an interview.

Underscore the metrics you earned in different roles

List the top-performing metrics at each position you held to get the interest of the recruiter. For instance, your last position in a leadership role made you responsible for managing a 10-person team and guided them through a six-step content creation process that boosted engagement by 20%.

Check out examples from job posting websites

Since you’re tailoring your resume to the company in your targeted industry, browse multiple job postings sites to compare the experiences of other applicants and see if you can showcase your decision-making skills in the same way.

15 Best Places to Visit in Moldova

This small landlocked European country is found between Romania to the west and the Ukraine to the east. Up until World War II, it was a part of Romania and if you visit both countries, you’ll see a lot of cultural similarities. Then it was part of the Soviet Union until 1991, so you’ll also see a number of similarities there. But Moldova has a lot to offer in its own right.  First, it’s remote and rarely visited – making it perfect for adventurers who want to blaze a trail. Second, it has a growing wine-tourism industry and those who know wines know that some of the best in Europe come from Moldova. You’ll find traditions are still alive and hospitality in the villages is genuine. Consider these top attractions while you’re planning your trip.

1. Chisinau


This is modern and friendly place is Moldova’s biggest city and serves as its capital. Chisinau has loads of green space, parks, and historical buildings. It feels like a city with space.  There’s also no shortage of restaurants, art galleries, nightclubs, spas, and casinos!  You’ll want to visit Pushkin Park and the orange pyramid at the World War II memorial. You’ll find marvellous frescoes in the Nativity Cathedral, and if that’s not for you, check out the stalls of the local modern artists in the art market.

2. Orheiul Vechi

The cross of Orheiul Vechi, Moldova
The cross of Orheiul Vechi, Moldova

Just an hour outside of Chisinau is Orheiul, or Old Orhei, Moldova’s most incredible sight. It’s an archaeological complex with rich cultural and historical significance.  It’s also a place of stunning natural beauty. Overlooking the Raut River, this open-air complex features fortifications, baths, caves, ruins, and monasteries – all which date back as late as the Dacian tribes of 2000 years ago. The ancient monuments date from various periods including the Tatar and Mongol invasions, the 10th century BC, and more recently the occupation of the Golden Horde in the 14th century. Because of the unusualness of the area, a museum has been built that offer exhibits and provide information and context for such a unique place.

3. Cricova Winery

Cricova Winery
Cricova Winery

A quick 30 minutes from Chisinau is Cricova Winery.  The second largest underground winery in the world; it is definitely something to experience.  You’ll find 120 kilometres of complex roadways above ground and an elaborate tunnel system underground which has been in place since the 15th century when the limestone was dug out to build Chisinau. This wonderful “wine city” includes warehouses, underground tasting rooms, and guided tours. You’ll travel 100 metres below ground and have a look at what 1.25 million bottles of wine looks like. The wine industry is growing in Moldova, which means that it’s worth bringing a bottle or two home.

4. Tipova Monastery

Tipova Monastery
Tipova Monastery

Located in a remote but beautiful part of Moldova, Tipova Monastery comprises three main complexes that have been dug out of the rocks along the banks of the Dniestr River. The oldest complex is the Church of the Feast of the Holy Cross (11th century).  The remaining two are the Church of St Nicholas (14th century) and Horodiste (16th century). If you follow the path past the caves you’ll enjoy a nice nature hike that ends in a lovely waterfall. Within each cave are monk’s cells, enough for up to 700, though there are less than 20 monks living there now.

5. Manastirea Curchi

Manastirea Curchi
Manastirea Curchi

This monastery wins the award for the most beautiful in all of Moldova.  The complex is made up of five churches, a refectory, several abbeys, and monk cells.  Its beauty comes from the Bessarabia architectural style. The centrepiece for the complex is the Mother of God Church, built at the end of the 19th century. After you’ve explored the grounds and learnt about the unique history of the monastery (it was once a psychiatric hospital during the Soviet era) enjoy a nice stroll through the orchards.

6. Saharna

Cave monastery at Saharna
Cave monastery at Saharna

This small village is the one that visitors most often say they’d love to return to.  The Holy Trinity Monastery is there, but it’s also a place of breathtaking natural beauty.  There is a silence and calmness that permeates the place – and you, after just a short time. Saharna is a pilgrimage place for many Moldavians because of a footprint on a rock which is believed to be the Virgin Mary’s. Nature lovers will for sure love Saharna. The River Saharna has 22 waterfalls – the most famous being “Gipsy Hole” (as it’s known by the locals). Enjoy hiking that offers incredible views of the surround area and the monastery below.

7. Transdniestr


This narrow strip of land on the Dniestr River is definitely one of the oddest places in Eastern Europe.  The government there has declared Transdniestr an independent republic. Though it’s a republic that doesn’t officially exist anywhere else but there.  Officially still a part of Moldova; the locals here believe they won their independence during a civil war in 1992. Transdniestr has its own currency, police force, and borders while still clinging to a Soviet era aesthetic throughout the region.  You’ll see plenty of Lenin busts as you’re exploring. The unofficial capital city at Tiraspol will be one of the strangest looking places you’ll see in Moldova.

8. Bendery


One of Transdniestr’s three cities, Bendery is the greener and more aesthetically pleasing counterpart to Tiraspol.  Though you can still see the bullet holes that remain from the civil war with Moldova, the city itself is friendly and fun.  Be sure to check out the fortress, built in the 16th century.  It’s changed hands a number of times and is a great reflection of the history of the city.

9. Gagauzia


The Gagauzia region is an autonomous non-contiguous stretch of land made up of three towns and 27 villages.  The culture and heritage here is primarily influenced by Turkey and although the people are largely Christians, their ancestors were Muslim refugees fleeing from war and looking for a place to lay roots.  They were permitted to stay in this region only if they converted.  With such a distinct history, you can image that the area is intriguing. Visit the Comrat Regional History Museum to get a glimpse of what daily life is like here.

10. Soroca

Fortress of Soroca
Fortress of Soroca

Soroca has played a large and important role throughout Moldova’s history due to its location on the Dniestr River. During wars and sieges, armies were able to defend the country well from this vantage point.  The highlight is Soroca Fortress, one in a chain of military strongholds built as early as the 14th century by princes looking to fortify their position against invaders.  Because of the large Roma community here, Soroca is the unofficial Roma capital.  For fun, walk by the mansions of the Roma elite that line the streets of the city centre.

11. Padurea Domneasca (Royal Forest) Natural Reservation

Padurea Domneasca
Padurea Domneasca

Founded in 1993, this is the largest natural reserve in Moldova and is located in Glodeni. Here you’ll find the country’s oldest stand of old-growth oak tree where the oldest oak is estimated to be about 450 years old.  Nature lovers will enjoy the many bird species with the most notable being the herons that nest near the river.  Discover the area known as “One Hundred Hills,” a landscape of rolling knolls – that no one understands how they were formed. Padurea Domneasca is a great way to spend a day outdoors with Mother Nature.

12. Capriana

Capriana Monastery
Capriana Monastery

Sitting in a lush green forest in Capriana is one of the oldest monasteries in Moldova.  Founded in the 15th century by Alexander the Good, it was once the home of the Moldavian bishop as well as Chiprian, one of the first Moldavian poets.  It houses the largest convent library in the country and after years of neglect, was reopened in 1989 as a symbol of national revival. While you’re there, you can make some stops nearby to visit the oak tree of Stefan the Great and Codru, the oldest nature reserve in the country.

13. Codru Natural Reservation

Codru Monastery
Codru Monastery

The most popular (as well as oldest!) reserve in the country, Codru lies in the centre of Moldova and is made up of a series of magnificent ravines and valleys. You’ll find over 1000 species of protected plants, 145 bird species, 43 mammal species, seven reptile species, and more. There is a natural history museum on the reserve worth checking out in between solo or guided hikes. You’ll love the wide open feeling of this popular reserve.

14. Kvint


You can purchase a bottle of some of Europe’s best cognac at the entrance gate to the Kvint factory.  They’ve been making top-quality cognac here since 1897 and even buying from the street vendors here will give you value for your money. Located in quirky Tiraspol, the locals consider Kvint to be a national symbol and its image is even on the Transnistrian five ruble banknote. They produce about ten million litres a year and you can sign up for a daily tasting tour.

15.Taul Park and Pommer Manor

Taul Park
Taul Park

Located in Taul Village, Taul Park is the largest in the country.  Inside the park is the stately manor house of Ivan Pommer, which was built at the beginning of the 20th century.  It’s a testament to landscape architecture and was highly revered in its time. The park itself is comprised of two parts.  The upper part is where you’ll find the manor house with tons of footpaths being swallowed by amazing flower beds.  The lower park feels more like a forest.  Various tree groups have been planted and each group is characteristic of a different geographical area.  Discover 150 varieties of trees and bushes – many exotic – when you walk the 12.5k of trails.

5 Ways to Cope With Emotional Stress

Emotional stress can be particularly painful and be challenging to deal with. It can take more of a toll that many other forms of stress. Part of the reason is that thinking about a solution, or discussing solutions with a good friend—coping behaviors that are often useful and effective in solving problems—can easily deteriorate into rumination and co-rumination, which are not so useful and effective.

In fact, rumination can exacerbate your stress levels, so it helps to have healthy strategies for coping with emotional stress as well as redirecting yourself away from rumination and avoidance coping and more toward emotionally proactive approaches to stress management.​

Causes of Emotional Stress

Relationship stress carries a heavy toll on our emotional lives and creates strong emotional responses. Our relationships greatly impact our lives— or better or for worse.

Healthy relationships can bring good times, but also resources in times of need, added resilience in times of stress, and even increased longevity. However, conflicted relationships and ‘frenemies’ can make us worse off in our emotional lives, and can even take a toll physically.

Relationships aren’t the only cause of emotional stress, however. Financial crises, an unpleasant work environment, or a host of other stressors can cause emotional stress, which sometimes tempts us toward unhealthy coping behaviors in order to escape the pain, especially when the situations seem hopeless.

Perhaps one of the more challenging aspects of coping with emotional stress is the feeling of being unable to change the situation. If we can’t change our stress levels by eliminating the stressful situation, we can work on our emotional response to it.

Coping With Emotional Stress

Fortunately, while you can’t always fix these situations overnight, you can lessen the emotional stress you feel, and the toll this stress takes on you. Here are some exercises you can try to effectively cope with emotional stress.

Get Advice From The Verywell Mind Podcast

Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast shares how you can change your mindset to cope with stress in a healthy way.

Practice Mindfulness

When we feel emotional stress, it’s also often experienced as physical pain. You may feel a ‘heavy’ feeling in the chest, an unsettled feeling in the stomach, a dull headache.

It’s common to try to escape these feelings, but it can actually be helpful to go deeper into the experience and use mindfulness to really notice where these emotional responses are felt physically. Some people notice that the pain seems more intense before dissipating, but then they feel the emotional and physical pain is lessened.

Distract Yourself

Common belief used to be that if we didn’t express every emotion we felt (or at least the big ones), they would show themselves in other ways. In some ways, this is true. There are benefits to examining our emotional states to learn from what our emotions are trying to tell us, and ‘stuffing our emotions’ in unhealthy ways can bring other problems.

However, it’s also been discovered that distracting oneself from emotional pain with emotionally healthy alternatives—such as a feel-good movie, fun activities with friends, or a satisfying mental challenge—can lessen emotional pain and help us feel better.

 How to Cope With Emotions Using Distraction

Block Off Some Time

If you find that emotional stress and rumination creep into your awareness quite a bit, and distraction doesn’t work, try scheduling some time—an hour a day, perhaps—where you allow yourself to think about your situation fully and mull over solutions, concoct hypothetical possibilities, replay upsetting exchanges, or whatever you feel the emotional urge to do.

Journaling is a great technique to try here, especially if it’s done as both an exploration of your inner emotional world and an exploration of potential solutions. Talk to your friends about the problem, if you’d like. Fully immerse yourself. And then try some healthy distractions.

This technique works well for two reasons. First, if you really have the urge to obsess, this allows you to satisfy that craving in a limited context. Also, you may find yourself more relaxed the rest of the day because you know that there will be a time to focus on your emotional situation; that time is just later.

Practice Meditation

Meditation is very helpful for dealing with a variety of stressors, and emotional stress is definitely in the category of stressors that meditation helps with. It allows you to take a break from rumination by actively redirecting your thoughts, and provides practice in choosing thoughts, which can help eliminate some emotional stress in the long term.

 5 Meditation Techniques to Get You Started

Talk to a Therapist

If you find your level of emotional stress interfering with your daily activities or threatening your well-being in other ways, you may consider seeing a therapist for help working through emotional issues. Whatever the cause of your emotional stress, you can work toward lessening and managing it and feeling better in the process, without losing the ‘messages’ that your emotions are bringing you.

The Blog is Curated by Vikram Kakri.


Being able to communicate effectively is an essential skill. Whether it’s in our business life or our personal relationships, effective communication is the key to our success.

Life coaching for effective communication is a fantastic way to learn and attain this skill.  Through a number of communication models, I’ll show you how to get ahead and stay ahead.

Here are my top ten essential skills for effective communication.  Master these skills now, and they’ll serve you well for a long time to come!

1. Listening

One of the most important aspects of effective communication is being a good listener.

People do not like communicating with others who are only interested in telling you what they want to tell you, and don’t listen to what you have to say.  Effective communication requires active listening, so practice active listening until it becomes second nature to you.

So what is active listening?  Active listening involves hearing and understanding what a person is saying to you.  Unless you understand clearly what a person is telling you, you can’t respond appropriately.  Gain clarification by asking questions or rephrase what you’re being told, so that you’re sure you fully understand the message that’s being conveyed to you.  For example, you could say “So, what you’re saying is…”

2. Non-Verbal Communication

The words we choose make up just 7% of the message being conveyed, which makes non-verbal communication all the more important. Body language is an important communication tool. Your body language should help convey your words.  Other factors you should consider are things like the tone of your voice, your hand gestures, and ensuring eye contact.

A person is going to be encouraged to speak openly with you if you are relaxed and have a friendly tone. Adopt an open stance position, with relaxed legs and open arms.  It is important that you make eye contact with the person you are communicating with, but be careful that you do not stare at them, as this is just uncomfortable.  It is just as important that you recognise the non-verbal signals being displayed by the other person.  These signals will give you an insight into how that person is feeling.

3. Be Clear and Be Concise

Convey your message using as few words as possible.  Whether in person, via telephone, or email, convey your message clearly, concise and direct. If you are excessive with your words, the listener will either lose focus or just be unsure as to what it is that you want.  Before speaking give some thought as to the message you want to convey. This will prevent you rambling and causing confusion.

4. Be Personable

When communicating face to face with someone, use a friendly tone with a simple smile, and ask a personal question. These things encourage the other person to engage in honest, open communication. When using written communication (e.g. email), you can achieve this by adding a simple personal message, for example, “How was your weekend?”.

5. Be Confident

Confidence underpins all effective communication. Other people will believe you will do as you say if you sound confident. Making eye contact, using a firm but friendly tone (never aggressive), are all ways you can exude confidence. Remember to always be listening to the other person and looking out for those nonverbal clues.

6. Empathy

Empathy is the skill of being able to understand and share the feelings of another person.

Even if don’t agree with the person you’re communicating with, it’s very important that you understand and respect their view. Simply saying to that person “I understand what you’re saying”, will let them know that you have been listening to them, and that you respect their point of view.

7. Always Have An Open Mind

Being an effective communicator requires that every conversation is approached with a flexible, open mind. This isn’t always easy to achieve, but is very important to communicating effectively. Always engage in active listening, and be sure to demonstrate empathy by acknowledging you understand what the other person’s point of view is. Adopting this approach will always ensure honest, productive communication.

8. Convey Respect

Other people will be more likely to engage in communication with you if you respect them and their ideas. Simply addressing another person using their name, will make them feel appreciated. If communicating via telephone, always keep focused on the conversation and avoid being distracted in any way. When communicating through email, take time to construct and edit your message, taking care to address the recipient by name.

9. Give and Receive Feedback

Giving and receiving appropriate feedback is an essential communication skill, particularly for those of us whose roles include managing other people. Providing constructive feedback, as well as giving someone praise, can greatly increase motivation and build morale.

It is just as important that you accept and encourage feedback from others. Always listen to feedback and act positively on it. If you’re unsure about any aspect of the feedback, simply ask a question to gain clarification from the other person.

10. Consider The Best Medium for The Job!

The final item on my list is knowing what the best form of communication is to use. Being mindful of using the best form of communication will result in your response being a positive one. Consider things such as, who it is you’re trying to communicate with, how important the topic is, and how busy that person might be. For example, asking your boss for a raise is never going to be taken seriously if you do it by text – so consider what’s appropriate!